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Animula, latin for a piece of soul or life, is another sanctuary for life; a planet quite similar to earth, but due toevolution's randomness in establishing traits, is home to creatures awe-inspiringly different superficially, behaviourally and fundamentally to life on earth, down to their very cells. When humans, in in midst of a new foray into space by means of wormhole genesis, discovered this amazing life-filled planet, scientists had at last found conclusive evidence that life did indeed exist out of earth, and not just tiny extremeophilic life; life that was multicellular, sophisticated, intelligent, and all the more astonishing (and massive because of Animula's lower gravity).

Life on Animula is quite similar to earthly life, with it too using carbon as a basic building molecule for its organic compounds. It is also similar in terms of genetics, with it too using DNA as a means of storing genetic information, albeit in trihelical form.

Time and Timescale measurement in Animula

1. Animula has 328.5 days a year, and 21.6 hours a day, equating to 7095.6 hours a year, as opposed to 8760 hours a year on earth.

2. However, for simplicity, we will measure time based on earth years. Timescale is measured by the amount of years it happened in after the impact of Sagittaan Cluster, with the abbreviation "yai" (for years after impact) used after the number. Contrastingly, "ybi" refers to years before impact.

3. For instance, oceans were mostly fully formed at around 800 myai (million years after impact).

Exoanimal AnatomyEdit

In all cellular life, the two basic cell forms are the simplicells and complecells, an equivalent to earth's prokaryotes and eukaryotes, though with some key differences. The first (that only applies to complecells) is that instead of a golgi body and a membrane designed to let specific things in, both simplicells and complecells have exointral ducts distributed around their membranes, ducts that allow chemicals in and out, and also do the job of packaging proteins. The second is that they have to genetic storage areas, like nucleii, each of which are nearly identical; the cell alternatively uses one or the other as genetic instructions; this split in the nucleus allows for more mutations to occur, and consequently a higher likelihood that a favorful mutation will evolve in the face of a potential extinction scenario. The third is that there is only one single Ribosynthesyzer instead of multiple Ribosomes. Exoanimals are non-photosynthesizing heterotrophs, and because they lack the ability to synthesize sugars, completely rely on consuming other life-forms for sustenance, and the various organs that allow them to do so.

Muscle works

All Exoanimals have a basic muscular system evolved from water transferring tissues in Parenids: a large vessel delivers liquid in and out of specialised hydraulicytes, which suck in fluid en masse to extend muscular tissue, and squeeze it back out to contract it. 

Inframole AnatomyEdit

The dominant phylum (since about 3220 myai) of the Exoanimals is the phylum of the Inframoles, a phylum of soft-bodied creatures with a

Lateral X-section or bones

support structure underneath the creature known as the "underspine", which in most species branches out to form upwards curving rib-like structures. Their muscular system is very similar to that of other Exoanimals.

Circulation and RespirationEdit
Oxyabsorbers
Like earth's fauna, Inframoles (along with Parenids and Motoplants) rely on oxygen to produce chemical energy; since aerobic respiration is the most efficient form of respiration. Inframoles inhale air from two pairs of holes on either side of the head, which leads down to one two-chambered lung for each hole: the first chamber filled with filaments that filter out non-oxygenal gases, and the second chamber filled with an intricate system of tubes that lead to tiny reservoirs of oxyfluid (a fluid filled with myoglobin to absorb blood) called pseudoalveoli. Myoglobin binds to oxygen more strongly than Hemoglobin.
Oxychambers

Once the oxyfluid has been oxygenated, it is sent to various oxybladders around the body, like miniature hearts for each part of the body. The oxybladders pump oxyfluid towards sections of the body separated by thin membranes called oxychambers so it is easier to retrieve blood after being used by the cells in the area.

Nervous SystemEdit
Binarons

Inframoles have a nervous system rather similar to ours, but with some key differences. The basic cell of the nervous system is the Transon, a cell that tranfers electric impulses from its filaments on one side to its appendage on the other, then onto the next Transon, similar to neurons on earth. However, more advanced Exoanimals such as Inframoles and their predecessors posess neural cells called Binarons, which essentially store boolean information with a contractible appendage; while contracted, any impulse sent to the binaron will not get sent on to the next cell. Every signal sent to Binarons toggles it, so if contracted, the next signal the Binaron receives extends it, while another signal would contract the Binaron again. (I'll go more into detail into Exoanimal anatomy later, including the circulatory and skeletal system.)

The main cluster of nervous cells which controls bodily functions is located deep within a hardskin-covered casing in the abdomen. However, further clusters are spread throughout the body, controlling their sections, each connected by a large nerve which runs down the length of the underspine.

SensesEdit

All Inframoles have four basic senses: Chemosensitivity, vibration sensation (includes hearing), touch, and sight.

The first, chemosensitivity, incorporates two sense organs: the two tongues, one for each jaw, which are not prehensile but very sensitive to chemicals, telling the Inframole what it is eating, and whether it is beneficial or harmful; in soem species, the tongue is also sensitive to molecules in the air, and having two air-sensing tongues could act like a snake's two-forked tongue, giving directional information. The second chemosensitive organ is the chemopad, a concentration of highly sensitive chemical sensors located on the bottom of the skull. In basal species, as well as many land species, the chemopad is just that: a strange pad which if touching the ground can sense what chemicals lie there. It has also diversified into many other sensory roles: in some Opthalmians, for example, it is a branched tenticular structure, sensing the water for prey.

The second, vibration sensation, occurs in all species at the midpoint of the two jaws, where in the most basal species lies only a patch of vibration sensitive cells. In Opthalmians however, a primitive drum-like structure surrounds this patch, taking in virbations all around. In Primisaurs, it has a funnel-like organ around it which face opposite directions, helping with directional sound sensing. Trimalans take it one step further, with one bare patch on each jaw facing downwards, which the Trimalan presses against the ground to listen for vibrations; whilst the second patch on each jaw has evolved into a complex prehensile tube and hole, in some species nearly internalized save for the tube leading out; in others completely visible as display.

The fourth, sight, has evolved in so many ways independently that to describe them all with one paragraph would be impossible; instead here are the features that all share: a short cylinder leads from the outside into a cluster of light-sensitive cells. The cylinder often has one or several lenses, each suiting the Inframole's needs. In Hexapedes, the entire organ, cylinder and light-sensitive cell cluster included, can swivel in a socket.

Digestive SystemEdit

Inframoles have a long esophagus that leads from the jaws down to the three stomachs; in some herbivorous or bone-eating species, parts of the interior of the stomachs are hardened and rounded, and the muscular walls of the Solvors mash these against the food, further breaking it down. Further down, the Solvors go down a series of intestines, long and twisted in some species, short and straight in others. Finally, the Novissimes, multiple bladder-shaped sacs, mash up the digestive matter once more and absorb what little left there is to absorb. Occasionally tough foods will need this final mashing to be digested properly, and sometimes digestive matter is reinjected into the intestinal tubes if it has not been sufficiently digested. Finally, the fecal matter from all the Novissimes is brought to the anus through a series of ducts, at which time it is mixed with all other bodily waste products and excreted in semiliquid form (eugh), having had all nutrients squeezed out.

Skull, jaw, and limbsEdit
Skull

Top: Top view of Inframole skull Bottom: Side view of Inframole skull

The jaw, the main adaptation that allowed Inframoles to succeed over their Duritian 

Head

Left: Front view of carnivore Inframole head Right: Lower view of carnivore Inframole head

rivals in the vitazoic ocean (along with added flexibility of the underspine), evolved from the underspine vertebrae and ribs: the front pair of ribs angled forwards and developed a hinge joint with the attaching vertebrae so that both ribs could open and close. Eventually keratinous spines in the jaws to grip and process food developed, along with powerful muscles; and the vertebrae holding the jaws together extended forwards to hold the nostrils and eyes.

Similar to the skull, limbs developed from the vertebrae and ribs. Some rib structures, instead of being angled upwards as ribs, pointed 45 degrees 

Opthalmian fin
downwards to act as fins in Opthalmians. For better control, this adapted rib split into sections for manipulation so the Opthalmian could control direction. The vertebrae expanded and grew strange protrusions as attachments for strong muscles.
Primisaur limb
When the first Hexapedes went onto land, it was obvious that floppy thin fins were not sufficient for movement. As Tellupisces adapted to be more and more suited to land, the very end bone of the fins expanded, while the other bones toughened, so as to support weight on land.
Trimalan rear limb
In more advanced Hexapedes, such as in the hindlimb of a Retroincendon, a shape adapted to powerful extension and shock absorption has evolved, pushing the limits on the speed and support provided by the limbs.


Animula
Information Taxonomy • Exoanimal Biology • Parenid Biology • History of Life
Life
Parenidae Motoplantae Inania Duritia Inframolia Habitats
Primizoic Era Cascuinania Primiduritizoa

Duritiscorpidae

Vitazoic Era Primiinframolezoa
Telluean Era
Molean Era
Mesoean Era
Neoanimalian Era Draconemaria (Class)

Trimala (Class)

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