Moving south, away from the edge of the European ice sheet, the tundra stretches about halfway down to what used to be France. There, the bleak landscape is gradually replaced by clusters of trees such as rowan and birch. Further south, trees become more abundant and conifers appear. Isolated clusters become unbroken forests of conifers. Where the Alps rise, another band of glaciation occurs - towering mountains of ice creeping slowly down the valleys. Beyond these Alpine glaciers, stretching southwards, lies the Mediterranean Basin.